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martes, 28 de abril de 2015

Environmental Study


ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STUDY FOR SUNLIGHT ENTERPRISES
The next study was made for Sunlight Energy Enterprises and it was conducted to meet the possible demands of the government in the approval process, it is expected that investment guarantees should be extended to ensure fair and reciprocal investment gain is achieved. The simple truth is that without an environmental study we could never expect approval.
After analyzing carefully the economic circumstances of the collapse of the global economy in 2008 we had formulated this analysis. We must be aware of the interventionist policies of the government of Ecuador and the lack of reliable laws, we must also take in consideration the lack of an independent Supreme Court that it is practically incapable of taking decisions in accordance with the law, but rather to the political whim of its members. At the same time extremely high tariffs (up to 40%) makes solar and wind systems extremely expensive and very few if any incentives are offered by the government of Ecuador.
All projects must be approved before presenting the results of the financial and economic evaluation to establish an analysis to indicate whether the projects have a high probability of being economically and financially feasible ; Apart from being able to consider the serious impacts on environmental resources in the area also to avoid causing large losses in the economic welfare of the communities in the province and all citizens living in the vicinity of the geothermal Chachimbiro complex where several rivers are born. We estimate that our company will build and operate a unique hybrid power plant in the world could gain around 97 million in net present value terms annually.
This figure is the sum of the profits of each year, which are discounted using an interest rate which reflects potential income from other investments and the cost of credit to indicate an investment is feasible.
We translate the financial value to an economic figure for a broader approach, considering the costs and benefits for Ecuador as a whole and not just for the investor. This conversion makes the analysis excluding any taxes or subsidies, which are artificial transfer mechanisms introduced by the State, using shadow prices, which correct deficiencies in the structure of markets for inputs and outputs of the project. Finally external shocks, defined as those forgone by the company financially, but clearly assignable to activities included.
The economic net present value of the project was estimated at 92 million: 40 million for geothermal production, 15 million for solar production, 22 million for wind energy production. This last result masks the fact that the negative impacts of the project are concentrated in an environment of global importance for conservation, and social sector traditionally abandoned and disadvantaged.
There is a need to establish very clearly the demarcation of the park Cayapas- Cotacachi to avoid damage either in deforestation due to the creation of new access roads near their limits, and the possibility that migratory birds could affect some areas. If biodiversity is affected choco Ecuador, it is likely that impacts will spread to other ecosystems, as its geographical location, serves as a bridge for the exchange of fauna between the Colombian and Ecuadorian region choco and with them the rest South America
Complex Cotacachi Cayapas- shaped central part is one of the regions of the planet with greater endemism and biodiversity. Due to lack of reliable data, this study does not estimate a monetary value for any losses in biodiversity, and calculates the additional costs of monitoring and management of protected forest. However, as an integral support to remedy nature Sunlight Energy Enterprises Inc , proposes voluntarily make planting five million trees in the next five years throughout the area comprising the Chachimbiro geothermal complex. Creating a positive both biodiversity and environmental impact. We stuck to an estimated gross cost of carbon dioxide emissions and the cost of a rescue attempt of birds and animals that could be affected by the project. The first value is 13 million, while the second was estimated 24millones. Apart from the environmental impacts would be the socio-cultural communities between Urcuqui and Pablo Arenas.
These communities must be given opportunities to work on projects and therefore training and employment opportunities should be offered. If the project is approved by the national government and local governments, these communities shall not be isolated and we should work hard so that we can minimize any damage to natural resources. Rather, we should strive to provide work in building roads and work that will serve as a positive impact in their communities, working together and in consultation with leaders of these communities. Besides that the company will voluntarily make donations to schools, colleges, universities in the province to encourage education and social welfare. Considering the case, it is not possible to reduce to a monetary figure the effects on common history and traditions that would be affected by the works and opening of access roads. Therefore, this analysis is intended only to glimpse the uses that communities make of natural resources and the increase in the cost of living that involves the comprehensive development of the Province. In the case of the area of ​​the city Yachay proposal we firmly believe that the government should provide compensation to the communities of El Puente, San Antonio, Tapiapamba, Las Mercedes, Tola and San Vicente. According to our calculations, these communities will suffer losses that could reach 56.2 million. This is a clear case in which an economically efficient investment will not be fair. The analysis in a projection of similar situations in other countries it should be noted that the benefits of creating a knowledge city and an industrial area would receive Yachay private company, the lending banks and the government , while the costs communities would bear the Province of Imbabura
It is recommended that the municipalities of the Province obtain an independent study of the true economic impact that will be caused by the creation of a city that it is certainly much more than a university and industrial complex, there is no question that tourism will also be affected and especially here requires at least five years in the medium-term and probably about twenty years of development that will require constant subsidies from the government that may cause the abandonment of the other cities. It is therefore important that there is a contract or formal commitment of the government with Sunlight Energy Enterprises  of the distribution of costs and benefits.
In theory, this non- equitable distribution of costs and benefits can be corrected through compensation to institutions. In practice, compensation and environmental measures are often insufficient in the context of major infrastructure projects. Environmental Impact Studies that were conducted by Sunlight Enterprises Inc. only with the opportunity to present the project to create a hybrid plant geothermal, solar, and hydro and wind in the Province of Imbabura did not consider more than the creation of a small university complex with the planning and investment of Universities like Oxford, MIT. UVA and George Mason. We never considered such a huge complex of University City, City of Tourism and Industrial city as it is being proposed with Yachay. Therefore, we do suggest that spending on social compensation and environmental protection will reduce the impacts that we have calculated in this study, which, in any case, are only estimates of partial damage. However, following the preliminary study and a computerized calculation it is estimated that if Sunlight Energy Enterprises participates in creating a production of at least 200MW hydro and wind, the Province may receive at least 87 million in profits. Yachay on the other hand in the current form since it requires subsidies from the central government and tax incentives to the Corean Company it will be pretty costly to the Province. We have a projection that indicates that the losses to expect in loss of businesses and damages to the economy of the Province will be around 95 million.  In other words the construction of a power plant with the capacity and design and has been patented by Sunlight Energy Enterprises becomes important as their contribution payments in local and provincial taxes will be significant to compensate and mitigate the impacts of Yachay .
Finally, we must recognize that any work of this magnitude brings impacts on the environment and culture that cannot be avoided or mitigated. It is up to the Ecuadorian society, mainly citizens of Imbabura to decide if the benefits of energy for domestic and export consumption are important enough to justify these sacrifices. Our study was conducted considering the proposed plant to the government of Ecuador. Our estimates do not consider the environmental impact of college Yachay industrial Yachay . tourist Yachay
PS. We have withheld some figures and certain full details. I left some figures for illustration and that this study is not used for other purposes.
Computer analysis: Economic projection:
Government Income Population Nature Company Bank loss
Energy sales (5% sales) 27 , 739
Taxes construction investment Generation Costs March 07 -8.883
Sales and administrative expenses -906
Tax (30 % income) 75 084 Increase in unrealized loss monitoring costs
Removing forest cover -24.896
Modifications aquatic fauna , wildlife -1.335
Fragile areas (biodiversity, loss not
Climatological factors ) quantified
Changes -56.202 living conditions
Changes indigenous culture , mixed culture , unquantified loss
Changes in health and education -
Total Impact on Sector 95 million lost Rates comunidades-B/.56 , 202 -B / . P 26.23
Possible tax payments locales.87, 957 Gross Value
DISTRIBUTION OF INCOME FOR SEE INC
CONSTANT PRICES AND CASH DISCOUNTED )
Legal environment

• Adoption of Local Government and central Ecuador is in the process.
• Permits: All necessary permits will be obtained as required under
• Sunlight will comply with all environmental work requirements, and all other regulations of the country.
• Agreements: A special agreement with the central government of Ecuador regarding the guarantee of investment must be part of the same agreement to invest in Ecuador. A minimum of thirty -year warranty on the ownership and management of the Company or otherwise compensated.
• Requirements zoning and construction laws. Sunlight plans to build using the highest industry standards in both construction and in all buildings.
• Insurance Coverage. It is important to get insurance in all aspects of the construction
• Trademarks, copyrights, or patents (pending, existing, or Purchased ) A full list of patents, Copyright and Trademarks will be documented.
The Future:
When we initiated the plan in 2007 we analyzed all the circumstances. The biggest challenger is actually not to be able to count with the scientific personnel that is needed to run an enterprise of such magnitude. Therefore we had laid out what the ideal University should be. It is the intention of Sunlight Energy Enterprises to devote at least 15% of earning to the development of a scientific University unlike no other. The great difference will be that every single student will be required to “be hands on” in all the projects. Every year students will be required to participate in helping build, repair, and work on all the projects of the University and we are hopeful that we could engage American Universities in these endeavor.

We are looking into the future and as such we have designed several building, structures and sevral inventions to improve and build better structures in architecture, and in our development:

Business Plan part III English


The wind factor
We intent to build at least 30 wind towers of at least 30 KW each to generate at least 20MW of wind power.
Screw Generator
Another great idea that we have is to renew existing facilities. There is an old hydroelectric plant in Imbabura that with our unique knowledge and design can be made into a powerful source of energy by using a unique design by using the ideal application of the screw generator with small fall heads. We can get a high and constant efficiency with different capacities and head: The efficiency curve shows a flat and high efficiency over a wide range of the capacity. Varying capacities and heads hardly have effect on the efficiency. The screw generator does not need any grease pump for lubrication of the bottom bearing which will improve the efficiency and decrease operational costs.
The screw generator is robust, extremely reliable and can be used for a long time. The screw generator, consist of a few wear parts. The combination with the low rotational frequency results in low wear. A lifetime of 25 till 30 years is not an exception, where the efficiency stays the same over the years. But not only that we can have our screw generator made out of carbon composite which make actually increase the time and efficiency. The reduction in weight will allow us to have up to ten units in the existing stock of the facility. It we get at least 500KW. Multiplied by ten units we will be able to produce an incredible amount of 5000 KW of electric power with a very low investment.
Our system could be extremely efficient.  Its maintenance friendly and low Maintenance costs: Due to the simple and robust design, Sunlight Energy Enterprises Inc. screw generator installations require minimum maintenance. It can also use the existent structure and adapt it to be able to save lots of money.  Can operate with variable and fixed speed. Power production up to 500 kW
 Wide range of flows. The Sunlight Energy Enterprises Inc screw generator is capable of handling flows from 100l/s - 15m3/s each. It is also designed to have a Multi stage application possible. Wide range of heads. Any head up to 12m for a single stage up to 24m for a two stage installation is possible.
 No cleaning necessary. Cleaning of the screw generator is not necessary. The generator is self-cleaning. No efficiency loss due to dirt build up.
 Low civil costs. Simple foundation with two concrete supports can be sufficient. Units can be specifically designed to suit existing civil layouts.
II . General Description of the Company
The thermal /hydraulic /solar/ wind system to be built by Sunlight Energy Enterprises Inc. presents several unique innovations that enables to triple production. This electricity generation will be perhaps only 20MW initially (solar and wind generation power) but by the end of construction the production plant will have a minimum of 150 MW of electricity generation at all times and eventually we would like to reach production of at least 400MW of electricity, making it the largest renewable energy center in Latin America. This is unique in the world as the volume of water that will be used from the geothermal source, will be minimal compared to any other plant. We do not expect shortages of water as the system integrates pools, reservoirs and storage that will serve the tourism complex to be built.
The company has the sole purpose of developing products and services that will be developed progressively. Initially we will begin with the generation of electricity from a wind turbine and solar panels in the very same building that is under construction in Ibarra, Ecuador and where we plan to have our headquarters in the city of Ibarra. Forty panels will be installed on top of the building generating our own electricity and becoming a very visible marketing tool as it is at the very entrance of the city.
The first part of the process of course is registering the Ecuadorian subsidiary company in Ecuador and the foundation and establishment of the company registered for operations in Imbabura, Ecuador. Sunlight Energy plans to be working with the communities to achieve approval of the various parts of the project. It is critical for the approval and requirements of the Ecuadorian government and local authorities in the province of Imbabura. The second is to develop profits as soon as possible and therefore it is crucial to start on the construction of the pyramid and the first wind tower while the process of approval for the whole project is worked out with local authorities and the central government, and of course some road construction is done. We foresee that the geothermal power project (6MW - 8 MW) will be the longest to be approved and therefore the last to be built, while we build the infrastructure of the solar plant and the Eolic Park. Then we will be installing the solar panels on the solar pyramid, the same that could become immediately a huge tourist attraction. Thus it is important to complete at least partially part of said facilities. At the same time construction of the rest of the plant will continue as the structure will also serve as home to the geothermal plant and hydraulic stations. Afterwards the water reservoirs and condensation system will be built to integrate with the hydropower. We are hoping to have production of at least 20 MW of hydraulic power. It is extremely important to facilitate the clear reading of the true capacity allocated winds and planned sites. Thus, facilitating the integration of the different parts of the project as they are being completed and become a whole of the plan, while we conduct and get reliable readings of wind energy and solar power, and we continue increasing its production as we will continue to build more and more turbines. Notably, collaboration and cooperation will be sought with universities in the Imbabura province as the Electricity production center will become a center of technological study of Ecuador (Read the reference analysis Yachay). In the first year we can expect the solar production of at least 20 MW and eventually the production of at least 120 MW to be implemented. In the two-year term production capacity could be at least 300MW and we hope to reach 400MW at the end of three years.
Eventually we want to be able to have at least 30 wind turbines in the wind farm and part of the hybrid solar, thermal and hydro power. The ideal should be around fifty. Everything will depend on government payments, costs of turbines and cost on the approval process of our projects. Therefore it is important to plant the development of a tourist resort and a place of recreation and bottled water to receive constant income.
The founder of the company has designed and patented this hybrid system that has the potential to revolutionize electricity production in Ecuador and in some selected and strategic locations in Chile, Argentina and other strategic geographical locations where existent resources could allow something very similar. Therefore this is only the beginning and we would continue to strive to get such centers approved in those countries and it becomes imperative to succeed quickly and efficiently in Ecuador. The patented design of our hybrid plant is innovative and never before seen or implemented using geothermal, hydro, solar and wind. But that's not all; the design of the plant takes advantage of every situation, not just the incredible geographical position in the Andean mountains of Imbabura and the incredible position in the equator where blowing winds from the Pacific Ocean create a favorable wind system. For the solar system we simply have the equatorial sun which as we explain a little further it the strongest in the world. But that's not all; we plan to develop electricity using waste of the residential, commercial, industrial and agricultural new city of Yachay
Also worth noting that we have in place not only the design, and patents of the power plants, but also the structures, buildings, complex operation of our plant are already available for us to proceed as soon as the financing and permits allows it. All plans may require modifications and changes according to the demands of building inspectors and building codes and according to the terrain in which it is built; the necessary changes can be easily made ​​.
We believe our solar pyramid has the potential to become a nice tourist attraction in the country. It will be simply a gorgeous structure. The main reason is that the thermal production of electricity involves making use of electricity with thermal waters of the geothermal Chachimbiro system. The design is such that the steam turbine is a structure 50 meters on each side and 45 meters high, this structure will be in a pyramid shape and completely covered by solar panels with the highest quality photovoltaic cells. On the pyramid will be a wind turbine. At the same time the thermal water is converted into steam and then passing through the turbine generating electricity, the water passes several thermal pools. These pools will be targeted at several different options. Any thermal plant of the water needs to be injected into the system directly. So taking advantage of the geographical location we plan to create a pool complex for people to have fun, but at the same time, part of the water is to be purified and sold as bottled water and can be sold as mineral water. All around the base we will build a water channel; it will serve as pools and water reservoir. While all the water ended leading to a waterfall built with three purposes. First to feed other hydraulic turbines, second to contribute to the beauty of the province creating a waterfall that would be visible from several parts of the province for the location of it; the third is to conduct the water to a strategic place from where we will install the water pumping station within the Chachimbiro volcano. The complex will also have four structures for management, maintenance and operations. The complex will also have a hotel and several attractions.
Plan Funding and Budget
The beauty of the process is that the company can begin to perceive revenue of electricity production as soon as the construction of the first wind turbine and the small solar pyramid is built. Actually, long before the geothermal plant is completed. Thus revenues will grow as it becomes implemented all the different components of the systems, wind turbines, solar production and hydroelectric production. We will begin the process of also selling hydro power systems, solar systems and wind turbines.
No doubt this will become one of the most important projects in the country's electricity production and it will contribute in reducing consumption of fossil fuels, to produce clean energy while protecting the environment.
Investors are guaranteed a profit of dividends distributed monthly to at least 7.9 % of the profits of the company, the same will be delivered directly to their bank accounts to avoid costs and postage, with the alternative of which are distributed once a year to those who prefer to be delivered by mail. Also to avoid pollution all information will be provided via e- mail and on our website that will serve as an avenue of communication with our investors and our customers. Payments will be made based on the profit after depreciation and tax payments. Also depending on the number of shares and type of shares (preferred, primary and secondary). The time span of the investment will depend on the agreement that the government of Ecuador allows, and will depend on the laws in the country, allowing the contract to be for some time.
Some technical and historical consideration towards the development plan.
While the company will start production of geothermal, hydro and solar energy, we are also building the complex of wind of at least 30 to 50 wind turbines and the location is awesome because the geographical location makes the winds from the Pacific Ocean blow in the mountain ranges of Yanahurco. It is extremely important to improve and double production capacity by means that will not harm the environment and taking advantage of this unique geographical place where wind, sun, geothermal power and hydraulic power can be combined. We will use all the most advanced mechanisms of frequency and electromagnetic fields and electrostatic electricity to also increase production and minimize loss of energy. Sunlight Energy Enterprises aims to create electricity or produce electricity using the most advanced technologies and in the most efficient manner. While protecting the environment, while representing profits to its investors and provides clean energy to consumers.
The development plan that Sunlight Energy originally devised stipulates to have a wind turbine while the approval process is passed, and the solar plant would be built. Thermal and hydro plant eventually is implemented.
The great Nicola Tesla (the true inventor and creator of the AC electric power generators, transformer, x-rays, and even radio) had said that "we must produce electricity for the good of mankind without using the resources that are non-renewable" and is exactly what our plan of development proposed.
In the year 2007 was born the idea of ​​a new concept for a totally unique power plant in the world. While in many ways each renewable source can function independently, at the same time combining solar, wind, hydro and thermal power makes more and better sense because the use of all the elements will improve quality and will help protect the environment. Then we searched and investigated some target places in Utah, in Canada and in South America. After careful study we concluded that the best geographical position due to sun, wind and the geothermal resource is in Imbabura Ecuador. There are also some unique economic factors to be considered that are of paramount importance as there are few places in the world as good as this location.
In Imbabura there is considerable thermal system called Chachimbiro, this system would allow the production of electricity using this mechanism. But the volcanic system is also in the western mountains of the Province of Imbabura which means the Pacific Ocean winds blow from west to east and so constant winds and ideal for generating wind energy. Then the geographical position in the middle of the planet has the potential of solar energy is immense, as the heat of the sun is much stronger and because the design of a solar pyramid in scale with the size of the earth and the distance to the sun, allows to capture constant and direct solar energy as we will have a perfect angle to the sun allowing maximum production all the time because they receive the solar energy constantly.
An equatorial bulge is a difference between the equatorial and polar diameters of a planet, due to the centrifugal force of its rotation. A rotating body tends to form an oblate spheroid rather than a sphere. The Earth has an equatorial bulge of 42.72 km (26.54 mi): that is, its diameter measured across the equatorial plane (12,756.28 km (7,926.38 mi) is 42.72 km more than that measured between the poles (12,713.56 km (7,899.84 mi); in other words, anyone standing at sea level on either pole may be 21.36 km closer to the earth's center point than if standing at sea level on the equator. To get the Earth's mean radius, these two radii must be averaged. At the same time this means the sun on the equator is much stronger than anywhere else because it is closer to the sun, solar energy is stronger.
An often-cited result of Earth's equatorial bulge is that the highest point on Earth, measured from the center outwards, is the peak of Mount Chimborazo in Ecuador, rather than Mount Everest. But since the ocean, like the Earth and the atmosphere, bulges, Chimborazo is not as high above sea level as Everest is. However, any mountain in Ecuador is equally closer and receives higher solar rays than anywhere else in the world.
Gravity tends to contract a celestial body into a perfect sphere, the shape for which all the mass is as close to the center of gravity as possible. Rotation causes a distortion from this spherical shape; a common measure of the distortion is the flattening (sometimes called ellipticity or oblateness), which can depend on a variety of factors including the size, angular velocity, density, and elasticity. The increase of rotation rate is so strong that at the faster rotation rate the required centripetal force is larger than with the starting rotation rate. Something analogous to this occurs in planet formation. Matter first coalesces into a slowly rotating disk-shaped distribution, and collisions and friction convert kinetic energy to heat, which allows the disk to self-gravitate into a very oblate spheroid. Due all this forces solar energy, wind energy, and geothermal energy is stronger in the equator. Therefore ideal renewable energy forces for our project.
As long as the proto-planet is still too oblate to be in equilibrium, the release of gravitational potential energy on contraction keeps driving the increase in rotational kinetic energy. As the contraction precedes the rotation rate keeps going up, hence the required force for further contraction keeps going up. There is a point where the increase of rotational kinetic energy on further contraction would be larger than the release of gravitational potential energy. The contraction process can only proceed up to that point, so it halts there. As long as there is no equilibrium there can be violent convection, and as long as there is violent convection friction can convert kinetic energy to heat, draining rotational kinetic energy from the system. When the equilibrium state has been reached then large scale conversion of kinetic energy to heat ceases. In that sense the equilibrium state is the lowest state of energy that can be reached. The Earth's rotation rate is still slowing down, but gradually, about two thousandth of a second per rotation every 100 years.[1] Estimates of how fast the Earth was rotating in the past vary, because it is not known exactly how the moon was formed. Estimates of the Earth's rotation 500 million years ago are around 20 modern hours per "day".
The Earth's rate of rotation is slowing down mainly because of tidal interactions with the Moon and the Sun. Since the solid parts of the Earth are ductile, the Earth's equatorial bulge has been decreasing in step with the decrease in the rate of rotation. There are some differences in gravitational acceleration. In calculations, when a coordinate system is used that is co-rotating with the Earth, the vector of the fictitious centrifugal force points outward, and is just as large as the vector representing the centripetal force.
Because of a planet's rotation around its own axis, the gravitational acceleration is less at the equator than at the poles. In the 17th century, following the invention of the pendulum clock, French scientists found that clocks sent to French Guiana, on the northern coast of South America, ran slower than their exact counterparts in Paris. Measurements of the acceleration due to gravity at the equator must also take into account the planet's rotation. Any object that is stationary with respect to the surface of the Earth is actually following a circular trajectory, circumnavigating the Earth's axis. Pulling an object into such a circular trajectory requires a force. The acceleration that is required to circumnavigate the Earth's axis along the equator at one revolution per sidereal day is 0.0339 m/s². Providing this acceleration decreases the effective gravitational acceleration. At the equator, the effective gravitational acceleration is 9.7805 m/s². This means that the true gravitational acceleration at the equator must be 9.8144 m/s² (9.7805 + 0.0339 = 9.8144).
At the poles, the gravitational acceleration is 9.8322 m/s². The difference of 0.0178 m/s² between the gravitational acceleration at the poles and the true gravitational acceleration at the equator is because objects located on the equator are about 21 kilometers further away from the center of mass of the Earth than at the poles, which corresponds to a smaller gravitational acceleration. This has be taken in consideration for the proper design of angles of the solar panels in the pyramid, as well as the proper design for the size and height of the pyramid.
In summary, there are two contributions to the fact that the effective gravitational acceleration is less strong at the equator than at the poles. About 70 percent of the difference is contributed by the fact that objects circumnavigate the Earth's axis, and about 30 percent is due to the non-spherical shape of the Earth. The fact that the Earth's gravitational field slightly deviates from being spherically symmetrical also affects the orbits of satellites. The principal effect is to cause nodal precession, so that the plane of the orbit does not remain fixed in inertial space. Smaller effects include deviation of orbits away from pure ellipses. This is especially important in the case of the trajectories of GPS-satellites. Generally any celestial body that is rotating (and that is sufficiently massive to draw itself into spherical or near spherical shape) will have an equatorial bulge matching its rotation rate. Saturn is the planet with the largest equatorial bulge in the Solar System (11808 km, 7337 miles). This nodes have become an important aspect for a more efficient distribution of electricity and therefore something we also have considered to improve our design.
Body                                 Equatorial diameter/Polar diameter/Equatorial bulge/ Flattening ratio
Earth     12,756.28 km      12,713.56 km      42.72 km              1:298                  .2575
The flattening coefficient for the equilibrium configuration of a self-gravitating spheroid, composed of uniform density incompressible fluid, rotating steadily about some fixed axis, for a small amount of flattening, is approximated by:[2]
where  and  are respectively the equatorial and polar radius,  is the mean radius,  is the angular velocity,  is the rotation period,  is the universal gravitational constant,  is the total body mass, and  is the body density.
But again the same thermal energy production leads to the generation of vapors and temporary use of mineral waters with curative effects furthermore enhanced by involving a pyramid. So a tourist attraction of considerable importance is being created. On top of that we are creating a waterfall to be able to produce some hydropower and again another attraction. Then water is purified and part is sold as mineral water, the other party is injected into the volcano to maintain thermal system running for a longer time. In this way creates a considerable production of electric power cleanly and protecting the environment. On the other hand a considerable source of work for the province is created by creating two tourist attractions that impelled the provincial economy for all towns and cities.
Also we plan to use the land that is in use by the wind turbines can be used as a refuge for certain species such as llamingo, llamas, wild horses etc. creating another attraction. But there are other sources and resources that suddenly can be explored by electricity. The creator of the plan has also considered essential to create a ski resort with artificial snow on the slopes of Chachimbiro.
In addition to the initial plan of the creator of the 2007 plan had considered the fact that thermal energy engineers, wind power engineers, hydro and solar power would be working in Ecuador. That is an important fact that for the benefit of the company we should encourage in setting up the faculties if such professions with local universities. We had initially proposed such idea, coincidentally; the central government two years later claimed to have led a study and the concept of the city of knowledge to be created as Yachay. We assume that was pure coincidence. However, in reality the concept of the government involves the use of huge resources and expenses to graduate students with masters degrees, while under our concept the way the creation of faculties in power generation systems is justified, because it part of the proceeds from the power plant luzdelsol intends to finance the University and expenses. Besides working hard with the country's universities and other universities had initially was proposed as Oxford, MIT and Virginia Tech
Essentially we will borrow the resource to generate electricity, but not squander the resource and we will increased production of electricity and help contribute to the economy. Our development plan undoubtedly will contribute to the economy of the province as a significant number of jobs will be created in the construction of the access roads, administration buildings, the pyramid structure, thermal plant, hydraulics, reservoirs and pools. Undoubtedly there will be jobs in the network electrification of all the plant and lighting systems both of the plant, as the resort. The company believes its vital that their development is in constant community support.
IV. Investment Required
We are seeking funding of the company and will make a public offering eventually. However, at this time we are allowing 45% ownership of the company. (The main reason for that is that Ecuadorian laws has some restrictions of ownership of energy plants, we may need to clear those legal aspects before larger investment is allowed) The plan of the company is paying 7.9 % dividend to all investors. Profits will be distributed according to the type of investment and according to the development phase in which the investor has entered. Major shareholders are certainly investing in the company and in all its activities and therefore are entitled to benefit from all sources of income of the company. Other investors receive dividends in each division of the company; whether you have invested in the hydraulic plant, the wind farm, the solar or the geothermal plant and will receive dividends only of each division. While some investments may be affected by the laws and conditions of the Ecuadorian government. Tax payments and payments will be affected respectively of the agreement with the government and have the government guarantees payment of Ecuador.
Total funding for the company will be $98,500.000. Money distribution is as follows. The total cost of the geothermal plant is estimated to be around thirteen million dollars and is the cost that some plants in Denmarck have been built and therefore we are quoting a real figure of a company that had already built a proven system. The total cost of the hydroelectric plant will be around fifteen million. While the solar pyramid will be around $ 10,000 million. We will also invest about 10 million dollars in the wind turbines and the rest is infrastructure. However, it is important to mention that because the production and construction are interdependent, the company will begin to receive revenues at the conclusion of the first solar pyramid and the first turbine / generator 30KW which is expected to be only $ 500,000. The total cost refers to the construction of at least 30 wind turbines. The solar pyramid should be able to produce at least 5MW by December 2015.
Business Philosophy.
Industry Analysis and Market
The company will sign an agreement with the government of Ecuador, and or with Emelnorte as am independent power generator of electricity for the next 20/25/50 years under the PPP contract, receiving about 14.9 cents per watt in its first three years of existence. Prices are supposed to change in a yearly bases. It is important however to know that revenues be collected from the time it begins to generate electricity. So there will be no need for marketing, distribution, customer service. There will be the cost of connecting to the network in the country, although we would negotiate for the central government and local governments to pay for it. We will negotiate some tax relief in the initial phase of the project and to be tax exempt for at least five years while we recuperate the investment.
The company hopes to build its first plant in Imbabura, Ecuador. To this end we will sign an agreement with the government of Ecuador as a generator of electricity for the next 20/25/50 years under the PPP contract , receiving about 14.9 cents per watt in its first three years of existence. Prices are supposed to change after that time. It is important however to know that revenues be collected from the time it begins to generate electricity. So there will be no need for marketing, marketing, distribution, customer service. If there will be the cost of connecting to the network in the country, although we will negotiate with the government to pay for it.
Operation
The designs patented by the founder of the company take a giant step in harnessing renewable resources to maximize the generation of renewable energy. It is the most innovative way to use hot springs in various processes of electricity generation. We have identified six areas where our systems CER could be implemented taking into account the geographical position and the location of resources to maximize production.
In the first CER will use to build the solar resource for the ease of building the system and to raise revenue as quickly as possible. Our concept involves the construction of a solar pyramid. It will be capable of producing about 120MW of electricity. Construction of the solar system will be done as soon as approval is received. Which will start earning income by December 2015 as the first part of our Mission is completed, long before we start construction of the other systems, such as the geothermal system in Imbabura, Ecuador Chachimbiro. The wonderful thing about the system is that electricity can be generated as soon as the first part is completed and you may receive revenues since. While the geothermal power plant and 30MW hydro plant will be operating within a structure built as a pyramid, the same shall be covered with nano solar cells (40% more efficient than conventional solar power generation) producing more electricity.
Geothermal plants can produce 24 hours a day and use up to 95 % of the energy resource. But using the water extracted of the geothermal resource for a hydraulic process certainly increases production. Not only that, but using mineral water to be purified and sell it on the market. This leads to an investment in a purification system. While it comes to paying the government for geothermal location, costs are low compared to the cost that would be paid or diesel fuel for long life of a thermal system.
Sunlight Energy is in the process of acquiring properties. It could also become a great source of income because property values will increase exponentially when Yachay becomes a reality. We are processing permits and requesting approval of the national government and local governments. Systems are unique in concept, design to integrate all systems of clean renewable energy. Because it has patented systems we intend to “license “such operations. We are proud to create clean energy that contributes to environmental protection. All of our production plants are made ​​using clean renewable energy: Including geothermal energy, wind energy, solar energy and new hydraulic technology.
Sunlight Enterprises Energy Inc. is planning to start the process initially building two wind turbines and solar plant together because on one hand it is essential to obtain accurate data on the capacity of electricity production. Only then we can conduct accurate measurements of wind and production. On the other hand we will also be receiving revenues needed to advance the process. At the same time we plan to submit to the government a proposal to allow some tax relief and compensation for investment. While at the permits are processed and both environmental and scientific studies regarding the production of geothermal and hydropower are completed.
   The company will work hard at obtaining favorable regulations and formulating laws that provide incentives, tax cuts and a quick approval of permits for construction of facilities. Besides we will be demanding guarantees for investors with the national government of Ecuador. We believe that over time we will get all the approvals to our plan. We will work hard on the logistics of construction, operation and maintenance. Besides having by then acquired data with turbines installed at each location.
The founder of the company has not only patented the systems and conducted simulated computer analysis to calculate the electrical output of our systems. But a number of mathematical calculations have been made to design the pyramid in a way to take perfect advantage of the solar heat, and equal calculations will be made for the location of each wind turbine. Every single aspect has been considered with respect to the position of the geothermal system. But the angle of the pyramid, the base size and height has been calculated to the size of the earth, the distance from the sun, and the Earth's position to have sunlight almost constantly at the highest power. Also the wind farm has been calculated because it winds blowing exactly peaceful system precisely winds exceeding the selected area for the wind farm can say with absolutely certainty that is the best position on the planet.

It is vital to integrate the most advanced technologies to help monitor and supervise the system to control energy in the most efficient manner. Equally important is to obtain the most accurate gauges to monitor the total capacity to be delivered to the network in the country and to receive proper and adequate payments and appropriate remuneration. We hope to integrate the latest photovoltaic technology and nano voltaic technology to integrate it to electricity production that can double the current standard. The most important aspect of investing is to understand that the production of our electricity centers will increase as the project phases are completed. No need to wait for the completion of the work to be earning profits. However, the power production will not be restricted because every part of the system is interdependent on one another. Each phase will work without the need of the other and obtain the maximum production capacity. Electricity production using solar energy involves a revolutionary system in the industry. While our systems integrate all renewable energy in a way never done before offsetting each other to minimize any loss of electricity production. 

Business Opportunity (Part II)

Business Opportunity

There is a very important aspect to consider. Feeding power at high impedance nodes will cause immediate power quality improvement. We have considered that production between 110 to 150 MW by our solar plant in the proximity of Yachay, could be feeding power into the local lower voltage grid is a key ingredient in the quality of power that we can provide. This will immediately improve the stability and reliability of the power available to the local people as it is served from that feeder. In such a case, investors will be happy with the production. Investment in our plants will also be profitable if the government buys power from these plants at the same rate that it currently pays to big plants feeding power into the Ecuadorian electric grid. But not only had that, on the outset of creating this plan, the founder originally wanted to implement a training facility and we had conceived to invite George mason University to create a campus in Ecuador and issue the degrees in Eolic, solar, geothermal, hydraulic and of course electric engineering.  The plan was presented to the Governor of the Imbabura Province in Ecuador and today Yachay exist. Yachay was conceived later as a city of Knowledge, interesting as we had conceived the idea as Techno city. Nevertheless, the government may need to come back to our original idea, since we had planned to simply ask the government of Ecuador to allow 15% of the profits to go directly to fund the “training facility” and in exchange to have those 15% as credit on taxes. The same can be applied here and Sunlight Energy Enterprises simply will make the payments to Yachay.


Right location of the plant:
One major problem with solar power plants is that an unusually large area is required for each kilowatt of power. As much as 1 square meter of space is wasted to generate 100 W of peak power. Until now, our design and our scheme of a solar pyramid not only will produce as much electricity as any other plant with the same amount of panels, but the size is reduced considerably by stacking them if you will in a pyramid, which allows the panels to be exposed to the sun all twelve hours daily. With our design we will save lots of land. While in other solar plants there are no trees and tall structures casting shadows on solar array, we will built the pyramid in such a way that lots of vegetation will actually be planted all around the land surrounding the solar facility. However as the pyramid will be on the top of a mountain, then all the vegetation will not shadow the pyramid and rather will act as a cooling environment. The place also is secure and free from birds and other animals. Our location is at an altitude of about 2800 meters above sea level, making it the solar plant closest to the sun and the highest in the world, the location is barren non-arable land and while is close to small towns and rural areas. The city of Yachay will eventually will be closed and as their needs arise we will have the possibility of expanding and building more pyramids or realizing our larger pyramid.

The huge difference:

Strong financial backing:
The costs involved in setting up a solar power plant are multiple which can be in terms of time, money, effort and knowledge. In terms of money, developing a solar power plant requires a huge investment. Estimated costs can easily vary from 10-25 million per MW capacity. The total investment as per Sunlight Energy Enterprises target of 120 MW is about 25 million; the main reason is the huge reduction on cost of the land. While similar enterprises will require a massive amount of land, we can probably have up to three small pyramids in about 5 hectares. The large pyramid will eventually extend the whole area to only 18 hectares but production will be easily as many as ten times the production of similar power plants in size. Land in the area where we have targeted being on the top of mountains is much cheaper and the saving is very considerable. Financing of solar energy projects in Ecuador are a huge problem. However, we should be in a very sound economic position as we will sell stock and raise the necessary funds through eager investors in energy. During the first phase of the solar mission, many companies fail to get licenses as they cannot meet financial obligations. We must strive to have a proper Power Purchase Agreements (PPA) with the central government of Ecuador to avoid the risk of a default by state manipulation of political turmoil if it ever arises. Delaying payments and even defaulting on financial institutions and banks is not unheard of in Ecuador.

In the first Center of Renewable Energy CRE, we will begin with the construction of the solar pyramid. It is relatively easy to build and revenue will start coming in as quickly as four months from the beginning of construction. Our concept involves the construction of a solar pyramid that will also serve as housing for future plants. The first pyramid will be small in size and eventually we will build one bigger in size, in fact our largest should be the size of the pyramid of Giza, which means a pyramid of thirteen acres in size becoming the most beautiful tourist attraction in Ecuador and that in turn will become another source of income for the company and its investors. The first year we will be capable of producing about 5 MW, the second at least 20 MW. By the third year we expect to reach production of 120MW (four pyramids). At the same time one of our pyramids will house the geothermal turbine for Chachimbiro. We must emphasize that due to the geographical location of our plant in respect to the earth and the sun, we simply will enjoy the strongest and hotter solar productivity than anywhere else in the planet due to the closer proximity of the sun as we explain further.
Geothermal Power
The geothermal resource based on preliminary studies paid by several governments and several companies seem to indicate that is between 4500 to 6000 meters deep and water will be obtained with temperatures between 56 º C to 260 º C with a volume of at least 270 liters per second, (about 72 gallons per second) the geothermal water is fed to a water condenser to remove vapors: alkali choride, salt crystals and minerals. Then the water feeds a " vaporizer "vapor that delivers maximum intensity at a steam turbine connected to a generator that produces alternating current AC, which feed a transformer / monitored for the distribution of electricity meter. The steam is fed to a natural capacitor, to prevent steam from being wasted in three chimneys vapor, unlike other facilities our system will use a system through covered pipes, while the cooling system is a network of multiple reservoirs and pools to cool the water. In the process of the water will be purified and bottled for sale as natural water. Besides, that will earn more revenue for the company. This water will feed a hydraulic turbine capable of producing 30MW of electricity,
with a “head" of 53 feet (17 meters) and flow 270 liters per min (72 gps). The water will be deposited in a new reservoir which again will feed another turbine / generator (Archimedean), hydropower production will be at least 30MW of hydraulic power with a facility much smaller than any other plant. The power generation capacity to utilize solar energy involves a revolutionary system in the industry as production increases and is used not one but four forms of renewable energy and it is the most efficient manner in which we can protect the environment reducing pollution. At the same time minimizing energy waste and increases the production of each center electricity production without causing further damage to the environment.

Hydro Complex 
Sunlight Energy plants to build also a group of structures to take advantage of a unique hydro engineering scheme and unified by their arrangement and by a common operational purpose. The Hydro complex becomes the proper use of a resource out of a common purpose. It is the most efficient way to reach efficiency in power engineering, in water transportation, or in water intake and consumption management. The fact that we will have a steam turbine means we take a geothermal resource and have water available, but said water needs to be injected into the volcano not to lose the geothermal resource.  We will utilize such available water with a unique hydro engineering complex which will enable us to simultaneously serve several purposes of water management.

Sunlight Energy has devised then a Hydro engineering complex which will serve several purposes. On one hand it will help cool off the water that comes out of the steam turbine. Then it leads to several pools and reservoirs that will serve as a tourist attraction, and of course it will be housed under the solar pyramid that will also house the steam turbine.  Then some of this water will be directed towards a pressurized water tank on top of the pyramid (each foot means 2.31 psi of pressure) which then will be release though a stock pipe into a hydraulic turbine that will power several generators though an intricate and unique gear system. All along the solar panels of our solar pyramid will also be producing electricity though photovoltaic cells and though our new parabolic solar dishes. Later all the water gets collected and eventually it leads to a manmade waterfall where we will engineered a system where part of the water will be used on the hydraulic power production through more Archimedean turbines. Our system is revolutionary and using the latest technology and we can create the needed head—that is, by the difference in water level between the head race and the tail water. To produce an adequate high-head complex we need to have a head exceeding 40 m, in our large pyramid we will have at least 87 meters, therefore we have designed our complex to serve several purposes simultaneously, such as power generation, increasing the beauty of the Province by creating a unique waterfall, and having the pumping injection of the water into the Chachimbiro complex.


The structures comprising our hydro engineering complex ensures the normal operation of the hydro engineering complex; these structures, in turn, can be subdivided into general structures and special structures. General structures will include the pools, the reservoirs and then the dam, the waterfall and surface and subsurface spillways, sludge, scum, and silt, structures for flow regulation, and connecting structures. Such general structures provide the required head of water pressure, the required capacity of the water storage basin, and other hydraulic conditions called for by the changing hydrological state of the water flow of our man made “river”. Special structures include hydroelectric power stations.

Auxiliary structures include living quarters, administrative and supply offices, buildings for cultural and community services, and structures required for water supply, sewerage, and roads. Temporary structures (cofferdams, storerooms for construction materials, concrete shops and reinforcement shops, workshops, access roads) are usually functional only during the construction of a hydro engineering complex, but sometimes such temporary structures may be integrated into permanent structures (for instance, a cofferdam may become a part of a permanent dam). Sometimes there are additional structures, such as transit roads and bridges crossing the site of a hydro engineering. The arrangement of a hydro engineering complex—that is, of the structures that form the so-called head front—is called the line-up. The respective location of the basic structures is called the layout of the complex. The layout presents a complicated engineering problem, which must be solved taking into account operational, structural, technical, and economic requirements. The great variety of environmental and local conditions that can be encountered makes it impossible to establish standardized rules for the arrangement and layout of a hydro engineering complex. These questions are solved individually in each case, taking into account the whole complex of conditions and requirements and considering the character of interaction among buildings.

Besides solving water-management problems, the structures of a hydro engineering complex must also fulfill certain aesthetic requirements. Such structures serve to create an architectural unity, organically integrated into the environment. The whole area of a hydro engineering complex should show a clear-cut architectural and functional zoning. Often a hydro engineering complex influences the planning and building of a whole area. We intend to build a beautiful cascade while at the same time integrating power generating turbines. The main structures influencing the architectural harmony of a hydro engineering complex are the dam, the hydroelectric power plant, and the ship lock with the head-races. While some run-off, may be used for other purposes in this case the water will be mostly used to be pumped back into the Chachimbiro volcano for the continued generation of electric power. This hydro engineering complex will includes an earth and dam of about 80 meters in height, a shore spillway, a water-catchment tunnel, and a power plant building.

Pictures of Francis and Pelton turbines and standard wind turbines.